by Allison Balogh
Carbon dioxide from power generation must be reduced to reach EU climate targets for cutting greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 and becoming climate neutral by 2050. European research and innovation are fostering new disruptive technologies and sustainable solutions to make this happen.
So how is it possible to establish energy self-sufficiency that simultaneously safeguards the islands’ futures and meets climate goals? The wind blows, the sun shines and the waves lap their shores. Harnessing these renewable energy sources (RES) has tremendous potential to reduce or eliminate the need for fossil fuels-derived energy.
Clean electricity by the islands, for the islands
The ways in which islands can make changes to transform their energy landscapes are nearly as diverse as the islands themselves, and Europe’s islands are making pioneering contributions across the board that have caught the world’s attention.
The island of Ærø in Denmark, with its brightly painted houses and cobblestone streets, is well on its way to a complete transition to RES, garnering it first place in the EU’s RESponsible Island competition rewarding holistic achievements in local renewable energy initiatives.
According to Halfdan Abrahamsen, Media and Information Manager at Ærø EnergyLab, the island now regularly generates more energy with its wind farms than it uses – about 125% to 140% annually. District heating plants integrated with warm water storage rely on solar energy, heat pumps, biomass and biofuels to take care of about 70% of the island’s heating needs.
On smaller and more isolated islands, being ‘off the grid’ may seem like a busy urban dweller’s dream vacation, but for inhabitants it means energy isolation leading to challenges creating potable water. These islands can now take some cues from the second smallest of the Canary Islands, El Hierro, which joined Ærø as another RESponsible Island prize winner.
Desalination and water distribution accounts for more than 40% of El Hierro’s annual energy demand and was really the impetus for the wind-pumped hydroelectric plant developed in the context of the 100% RES-EL HIERRO project.
‘Desalination and water distribution accounts for more than 40% of El Hierro’s annual energy demand and was really the impetus for the wind-pumped hydroelectric plant developed in the context of the 100%RES-EL HIERRO project,’ explained Santiago González, Chief Executive Officer of Gorona del Viento El Hierro, the company that runs, operates and maintains the power station.
When the winds are blowing, they turn the turbine to generate electricity. Surplus wind power is used to pump the water from a lower reservoir to a higher elevation, ready to work with gravity to generate electricity even when the winds cease to blow. The plant will be able to cover up to 70% of the annual energy demand of the island and has even supplied 100% for up to 25 consecutive days!
Hybrid technologies like these that find ways to make ‘deposits’ in times of excess boost the potential of intermittent RES. The tiny Greek island of Tilos has exploited this potential in a pioneering hybrid power station consisting of a wind turbine, a small photovoltaic (PV) park and a battery storage system, the first of its kind in Greece and among the first in Europe. These accomplishments and more have won it three European awards and a RESponsible Island prize.
According to Eustathios Kontos, General Secretary of the Island of Tilos, prior to the TILOS project, which began in 2015, there were only a handful of residential PV installations. A few years later, the island boasts a fully functioning hybrid power station that can supply around 50% to 60% of needed energy even during a mild wind year and, during some winter months, has exported excess clean energy to neighbouring islands.
More than energy production
There’s more than one way to support a clean energy transition and the islands are powering ahead with a multifaceted approach.
‘TILOS’ success inspired us to expand the penetration of clean energy production, energy saving measures and intelligent energy management in areas including public lighting and management of the water network.
‘TILOS’ success inspired us to expand the penetration of clean energy production, energy saving measures and intelligent energy management in areas including public lighting and management of the water network. We also added a conventional and a PV-based electric vehicle (EV) charging station. Carbon neutrality is our ultimate aim in the near future,’ added Kontos.
Transportation is a major contributor to climate-changing emissions and islands are moving forward in this area too. Ærø is encouraging EVs and has cut bus emissions by 40% with solar panels and gas-to-liquid fuel. Free bus rides means the green buses now transport five times as many people, significantly reducing car-related pollution and the expenses of road maintenance and expansion.
And you won’t hear – or smell – Ellen on the Danish seas. Ærø’s fully electric ferry Ellen is the world’s largest, developed within the context of the E-ferry project.
Building sustainability takes a village
Community involvement is a recognised prerequisite for long-term success, and while this holds true everywhere, on small islands it is even more critical.
Cooperatives are a Danish tradition, from the first cooperatively owned dairy created by Danish farmers in 1882 to the oldest operating wind turbine in the world (43 years and counting!) developed by Danish teachers.
When you hook up to one of our three district heating plants, you must buy a share by default. In our experience, local ownership results in local acceptance and local enthusiasm. “Not in my backyard” is a phrase known to anyone who has tried to erect a wind turbine or build a solar plant – local ownership lubricates the gears of change.
Ærø’s first community-owned wind farm was established in 1985 and its wind farms continue to be community-owned. Similarly, the district heating plants are private companies that are cooperatively owned. Abrahamsen noted: ‘When you hook up to one of our three district heating plants, you must buy a share by default. In our experience, local ownership results in local acceptance and local enthusiasm. “Not in my backyard” is a phrase known to anyone who has tried to erect a wind turbine or build a solar plant – local ownership lubricates the gears of change.’
González agreed: ‘Ultimately, changes that benefit citizens foster acceptance and support. Our charging points for cars are free and a portion of savings from the wind-pumped hydroelectric facility are passed on to islanders as subsidies to purchase EVs or home PV systems.’
The rich tradition of Tilos’ inhabitants in progressive innovation has played a significant role in the island’s successful transformation. Tilos is not alone: survey of 15 Aegean islands carried out by the project showed that nearly 75% of islanders supported transition to an energy future in line with the Tilos model.
Planning for success
Deciding on what to implement and how is not as simple as the successes featured here might make it seem. Because future scenarios are difficult to explore and strategies are hard to align, the INSULAE project has developed a novel investment planning tool for islands, offered as a software-as-a-service.
‘The investment planning tool gives robust insights from scenarios with sustainable options tailored to an individual island and with a step-by-step long-term pathway,’ said Jeanne Fauquet, product manager at Artelys. It is also a communication tool that helps share visions of the future with a larger audience to get everyone on the same page.
The NESOI European Islands Facility provides professional on-site technical assistance to local authorities and private bodies, including activities such as energy analyses, business and financial modelling, definition of tender procedures, etc. The idea is to empower local island entities through capacity building and networking.
So how do the islands turn their action plans into actions? ‘The NESOI European Islands Facility provides professional onsite technical assistance to local authorities and private bodies, such as energy analyses, business and financial modelling, definition of tender procedures, etc. The idea is to empower local island entities through capacity building and networking,’ explained Andrea Martinez, deputy managing director at Sinloc and NESOI project coordinator.
NESOI support is open to all of Europe’s 2,400 inhabited islands and the team is ready to invest a total of €6.2 million. Each beneficiary will receive a maximum grant amount of €60,000 and an additional €60,000 worth of technical assistance provided onsite by the NESOI team of experts.
The Facility’s first open call in October 2020 resulted in approval of 28 projects expected to eliminate around 300 kilotonnes of carbon dioxide emissions annually. The second funding call will be launched in October 2021.
NESOI is ensuring the long-term viability of projects by selecting those that can maintain positive profitability with medium- to low-risk investments, but projects at all levels of maturity can apply for funding. Interested parties can check out the NESOI website and subscribe to the NESOI newsletter for updates.
Green credentials” enhance the islands for citizens and visitors, and local economies and their populations are revitalised, motivating further action
Martinez added: ‘Perhaps the most impressive outcome of the NESOI project was that, after the success of the first call, our initial projected investment mobilisation of €100 million has increased almost 10-fold, reaching a new projection close to €1 billion.’
Gaining momentum and setting the pace
Europe’s clean energy transition is gaining momentum, and islands are at the forefront of this movement. Leon Nielsen of CIRCE, and INSULAE project manager, put it in a global context: ‘Infrastructure improvements and societal changes tend to happen together, creating a positive feedback loop – societies benefit from maintaining ecosystems, “green credentials” enhance the islands for citizens and visitors, and local economies and their populations are revitalised, motivating further action – hopefully on the mainland as well since energy is a global problem requiring global action.’
Approximately 11,000 islands on our planet have permanent inhabitants and Europe’s 2,400 islands are home to 16 million people. Their physical separation from the mainland creates significant challenges when it comes to a steady supply of things the rest of us often take for granted – from potable water and the energy to power our homes and businesses.
The research in this article was funded by the EU. If you liked this article, please consider sharing it on social media.
Islands are taking on the decarbonisation challenge
Islands are small and their energy systems are isolated, creating significant challenges both practical and financial. But their abundance of renewable energy sources (RES) provides an opportunity to make a rapid and complete transformation to clean energy – and set an example for other islands and the mainland in the process.
The European Parliament and the European Commission set up the Clean energy for EU islands secretariat in 2018, to help citizens, local authorities, businesses and academic institutions work together to advance the clean energy transition on their island. The secretariat can help islands explore options, shape sustainable and cost-effective solutions, and turn them into actions.
This article was originally published in Horizon, the EU Research and Innovation magazine.
Dark side of Social Media Influencing
Dark side of Social Media Influencing
Do you follow influencers on social media? Do you always check their posts? Do you find you’re spending too much time or becoming obsessed with checking influencers’ accounts? And when you can’t check in, do you feel disconnected or lost?
If you answered yes to all of these questions, you may have whats known as “problematic engagement” with social media influencers.
But don’t blame yourself too much. You are among the many who have been swept away by dazzling social media influencing. And this can be attributed to many features and tactics social media influencers employ that help keep them influential — like livestreams and polls on Instagram.
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As experts in social media and user behaviour, we recently published a paper that looks at followers’ problematic engagement with influencers on social media. Our paper is among the first to study which aspects of social media influencing may lead to followers’ problematic engagement. It is important to examine this context considering the significant volume and revenues of social media influencing — it’s a US$13.8 billion industry.
The issue of problematic engagement
Whether you are a fashion fan or want information on health and fitness — there’s an influencer to follow. And followers often gravitate towards them for their authenticity and content creation.
But less focus is put on the dark side of social media influencing. Influencers are motivated and often incentivized (through product and brand endorsement) to increase their power on social media and many are becoming more proficient in attracting and engaging followers.
Followers, on the other hand, can easily become attached and obsessed with influencers and their engagement can often become excessive and unhealthy. Problematic engagement with social media influencers is common among followers, but not well known or understood.
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We recently examined the factors and mechanisms that lead to problematic engagement. We focused on three influencer characteristics (physical attractiveness, social attractiveness and self-presence) and two follower participation attributes (participation comprehensiveness and following length) to explore their effects on the development of problematic engagement through the formation of follower attachments.
Based on attachment theory, we studied two types of attachments — parasocial relationship and sense of belonging, both of which are key in social media influencing. Parasocial relationship is followers’ perception of their one-sided relationship with an influencer and sense of belonging refers to the feeling of being an integral member of the influencer’s community.
We conducted an online survey of 500 Instagram users. The results showed that when followers develop attachments both to influencers (parasocial relationship) and their community (sense of belonging), this can lead to problematic engagement.
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We found that influencers’ social attractiveness has a stronger effect than other factors in building followers’ attachments. Following more influencers could reduce the impact of attachment to the community (sense of belonging) when it comes to problematic engagement, but not the effect of attachment to the influencer (parasocial relationship).
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Implications for influencers and followers
Our study warns of and explains problematic engagement to social media users.
We argue that social media users who are attracted to influencers can become easily attached and engage excessively. Users need to be aware of, watch out for and exert self-regulations to manage their interactions with influencers.
For example, participation comprehensiveness — which refers to the reasons for following and extent of followers’ participation (like watching, liking, commenting, sharing) — can lead to attachment development. This, however, can be consciously managed by followers themselves. One way of doing this is by making use of the phone’s functions and tools like setting daily time limits on Instagram or turning off notifications for the app.
Social media influencers should also be aware of followers’ problematic engagement. Although it may be in contrast with their goal of increasing follower engagement, they can focus on creating a healthy relationship with their followers.
For instance, influencers can openly talk about the issue of problematic engagement and show care for their followers’ well-being. This will help with sustainability of the relationship because studies have shown that social media users with problematic behaviour are more likely to stop using platforms after a while.
More research on the dark side of social media influencers is needed and we call for future research to focus on additional negative consequences such as followers’ anxiety, depression and the impact of following influencers on followers’ well-being.
Samira Farivar, Assistant Professor, Information Systems, Sprott School of Business, Carleton University; Fang Wang, Professor, Lazaridis School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, and Ofir Turel, Professor, School of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne
Cyberattacks | Local governments are attractive targets for hackers
President Joe Biden on March 21, 2022, warned that Russian cyberattacks on U.S. targets are likely, though the government has not identified a specific threat. Biden urged the private sector: “Harden your cyber defenses immediately.”
It is a costly fact of modern life that organizations from pipelines and shipping companies to hospitals and any number of private companies are vulnerable to cyberattacks, and the threat of cyberattacks from Russia and other nations makes a bad situation worse. Individuals, too, are at risk from the current threat.
Local governments, like schools and hospitals, are particularly enticing “soft targets” – organizations that lack the resources to defend themselves against routine cyberattacks, let alone a lengthy cyber conflict. For those attacking such targets, the goal is not necessarily financial reward but disrupting society at the local level.
From issuing business licenses and building permits and collecting taxes to providing emergency services, clean water and waste disposal, the services provided by local governments entail an intimate and ongoing daily relationship with citizens and businesses alike. Disrupting their operations disrupts the heart of U.S. society by shaking confidence in local government and potentially endangering citizens.
In the crosshairs
Local governments have suffered successful cyberattacks in recent years. These include attacks on targets ranging from 911 call centers to public school systems. The consequences of a successful cyberattack against local government can be devastating.
I and other researchers at University of Maryland, Baltimore County have studied the cybersecurity preparedness of the United States’ over 90,000 local government entities. As part of our analysis, working with the International City/County Management Association, we polled local government chief security officers about their cybersecurity preparedness. The results are both expected and alarming.
Among other things, the survey revealed that nearly one-third of U.S. local governments would be unable to tell if they were under attack in cyberspace. This is unsettling; nearly one-third of local governments that did know whether they were under attack reported being attacked hourly, and nearly half at least daily.
Lack of sound IT practices, let alone effective cybersecurity measures, can make successful cyberattacks even more debilitating. Almost half of U.S. local governments reported that their IT policies and procedures were not in line with industry best practices.
In many ways, local governments are no different from private companies in terms of the cybersecurity threats, vulnerabilities and management problems they face. In addition to those shared cybersecurity challenges, where local governments particularly struggle is in hiring and retaining the necessary numbers of qualified IT and cybersecurity staff with wages and workplace cultures that can compare with those of the private sector or federal government.
Additionally, unlike private companies, local governments by their nature are limited by the need to comply with state policies, the political considerations of elected officials and the usual perils of government bureaucracy such as balancing public safety with the community’s needs and corporate interests. Challenges like these can hamper effective preparation for, and responses to, cybersecurity problems – especially when it comes to funding. In addition, much of the technology local communities rely on, such as power and water distribution, are subject to the dictates of the private sector, which has its own set of sometimes competing interests.
Large local governments are better positioned to address cybersecurity concerns than smaller local governments. Unfortunately, like other soft targets in cyberspace, small local governments are much more constrained. This places them at greater risk of successful cyberattacks, including attacks that otherwise might have been prevented. But the necessary, best-practice cybersecurity improvements that smaller cities and towns need often compete with the many other demands on a local community’s limited funds and staff attention.
Getting the basics right
Whether they are victimized by a war on the other side of the world, a hacktivist group promoting its message or a criminal group trying to extort payment, local governments in the U.S. are enticing targets. Artificial intelligence hacking tools and vulnerabilities introduced by the spread of smart devices and the growing interest in creating “smart cities” put local governments even more at risk.
There’s no quick or foolproof fix to eliminate all cybersecurity problems, but one of the most important steps local governments can take is clear: Implement basic cybersecurity. Emulating the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s national cybersecurity framework or other industry accepted best practices is a good start.
I believe government officials, especially at the local level, should develop and apply the necessary resources and innovative technologies and practices to manage their cybersecurity risks effectively. Otherwise, they should be prepared to face the technical, financial and political consequences of failing to do so.
How to Get Organic Traffic From Google Search?
After reading this post today, you will know “How to Get Organic Traffic from Google Search”. Consider this post as your ultimate guide or cheat sheet that will help you build amazing “Content that Ranks on Google” and “Massive Traffic to Your Website”.
Before diving deep down right into the topic, I would like to clear a few things.
1-Getting Organic Traffic from Google search is NOT a Myth
2-You do not need to be an SEO Expert or Guru to Rank your content on the First Page of Google Search Results
3-But DO NOT think, that it is a piece of cake, or after reading, you can change a few settings on your website, and voila.
4-To get the best results, and maximum impact, read this post and compare it to writing style, and how you are writing the content.
5-Make points, if something or any term used in the article is not clear, google it. You may ask in the comments section if something is not clear.
Remember! Your goal should not be only to read this article, but also to understand the logic and theory behind it.
Why do You Want Traffic from Google Search?
It is no secret that Google Search Engine is one of the largest search engines in the market. It is estimated that Google processes around 5.6 Billion searches in a day. According to research, from January 2010 till January 2022, Google Search Engine has dominated the Search Engine Market and held from 85% to 91.22% market share, as compared to other search engines like Bing, Yahoo, Baidu, and Yandex. So there is no doubt that anyone entering the world of the Internet, regardless of small or a big corporation, a news agency, an e-commerce business, or just a simple blogger, wants to get Ranked on the 1st page of Google Search Results.
Think of Your Target Audience
Your target audience is the most crucial aspect of getting Organic Traffic to your Website. It makes it easier to write powerful content when you know your audience, i.e. For whom you are writing? i.e., country, gender; interest and age, etc.
For example, if your target audience is toddlers and mothers, you will not write complex phrases or terms. It would make more sense to write simple phrases, use colorful images, etc.
Similarly, if you are writing for a mature audience, you should write according to their interest, and level.
What I want you to understand, is that you should know your audience confidently, what they like, gender, age, and other demographics. It will help to create the right and targeted content.
If you are a newbie in content writing or blogging, then you must understand the term “Keyword” and everything associated with it. Short Tail Keyword(STK), Long Tail Keyword(LTK), Related Keywords, etc.
There is no point in creating tons of content without doing proper Keyword Research. You should always search before writing the content.
In simple terms, Keyword/s is/are the term/s that people search over the internet. A Short Tail Keyword is between 1 to 2 words, and any search term which is more than 3 keywords is considered as Long Tail Keyword.
Related Keywords are the search terms that Google suggests that people are also searching for.
The Wrong Way
Most people just think of a topic, perhaps search for its difficulty level, and then start writing. But later after publishing the post, they get disappointed when they see that their post has landed on 50th to 100th position in Google search results.
How to Do Proper Keyword Research? The Right Way
Whenever you are presented with a topic, do not start writing bluntly. A professional and right approach demands that you should do proper Keyword Research.
A Keyword Research means that you use a tool to find the following about the Keyword:
- How many people are searching for that keyword in a given location?
- What is the level of Competition on that Keywords?
- How many EXPECTED Backlinks are required for the post to get ranked on the First Page of Google Search Results?
There are several Free & Paid Tools available that make it easier for you to do Keyword Research. In the Free version, you will get limited results but just enough to get the job done.
For Example, Ahref Free Keyword Difficulty, Ubersuggest Keyword Explorer, tool, etc. I will not explain here how you should use these tools, because there are many videos on YouTube showing you how to use them in different languages.
Your 1st goal should be, finding a keyword that has low difficulty and some search volume. The ideal keyword for a new website is to find keywords that have 0KD and over 100 searches.
In many cases, you will find that your Primary Keyword has a higher Keyword Difficultly. The easiest way would be to find a keyword that is closer to your keyword with low keyword difficulty. For this, you can use another Free Tool from Ahref, called Keyword Generator. Sometimes you do not know Primary Keyword, or your client has given you a generic topic and asked to find the Best Keyword. All you need is to write the main topic and select the country. This tool will give you all the keywords related to that topic according to their Search Volume, Keyword Difficulty.
SERP Analysis- Go Deeper
Many content writers or bloggers start writing simply after checking the Keyword Difficulty. In some cases, they do succeed in getting ranked on the first or second page. Or perhaps, they are simply hired content writers who just write for their clients and have no interest whatsoever if their article gets ranked or not.
If you fall into the above category, then it is ok, you did your job. But if you want to rank your article, then you should also learn about SERP Analysis.
SERP is the short form of the “Search Engine Result Page”. If your primary goal is to get massive traffic from Google Search, then you must know how to do SERP Analysis.
SERP Analysis, for a given Keyword, means, that you do technical analysis of the articles and sites that are ranking on the first page of Google Search Result. You can use Ahref SERP Free Tool to do SERP Analysis.
In SERP, for the keyword of the targeted country, you look for the following:
- AR (Ahrefs Rating)
- DR (Domain Rating)
AR shows the strength of the website, with #1 as the strongest and goes up to Millions. In other words, sites with lower AR are very difficult to compete with. The AR rating depends upon the backlink profile.
DR stands for Domain Rating. It starts from 0 to 100. Higher DR means the website has higher authority and will be difficult to compete. DR depends on how many Backlinks you have from other authority domains.
Backlinks show the number of backlinks from other websites for that particular page. Other metrics, Traffic, and Keywords are not too important.
How to do Correct SERP Analysis
This is the most crucial part of doing the Keyword Research. Just by looking at the KD will not guarantee to be ranked on the first page of Google Search Results, even if KD is 0 for a given Keyword.
I would recommend you to do a simple test yourself. Find a Keyword with low difficulty and check it in SERP Tools. In many cases, you will find, the sites which have stronger AR, higher DR, and maximum no of Backlinks will be ranked on the 1st three positions of the Google Search Result.
So your ultimate goal would be to find a keyword that has all the following characteristics:
- Low KD
- Lower AR (Higher AR means lower Strengths)
- Lower DR
- Less number of Backlinks
I hope many of you would now understand why their post was landing on the 5th to 10th page and what were they missing in their efforts to get on the first page.
Bonus Tip| Going Further Deeper
Let’s suppose, you have found the Perfect Keyword but want to make sure that, you have landed on the first page. If your answer is yes, then learn 2 search strings “inurl:” and “allintitle:”.
The above 2 search strings help you to find the number of competitors for a given Keyword on Google. As part of the On-Page SEO, you should always include Primary Keyword in the URL, and the title of the article.
What does inurl: & allintitle: do?
When you search a keyword, Google will show you millions or billions of search results. This is because Google will include everything in the results, including results that are direct or indirect to the topic. But using inurl: and allintitle: will help you get more authentic results and the correct level of competition.
Once you know the correct number of the competitor, you can do small changes to your URL and title to have higher chances to land on the first page.
For Example, let’s say my target Keyword is “Organic Traffic” and I search it on Google.
You will see that Google has 1,160,000,000 Organic Traffic results. Remember, it will include everything related to this topic.
Now let’s use inurl: to search the same keyword.
Google Search Result using search string inurl[/caption]
Now just by using inurl: we see Google has 879,000 search results. In fact, inurl: strings mean, we are forcing Google to show only those results which have our keyword “Organic Traffic” in their URL.
Check the result when we use allintitle: This search string forces Google to show results with Organic Traffic in its main title.
Google Search Result using search string allintitle [/caption]
The results show there are only 38,900 results.
I hope you got the idea and importance of these 2 search strings. You can now do small changes to your keyword by adding a word two at the beginning or, at the end of your keyword will help you find the perfect title.
I am sure now, that you have understood, that organic traffic is not a myth nor it is rocket science. You do not need to be an SEO Guru or a Geek to get your article on the first page of Google Search Results. You just need to evaluate the authority of your website and do a comprehensive Keyword & SERP Analysis.
If your website or client’s website is relatively new, then you should target the keywords that have lower difficulty, and SERP Analysis shows the high probability for a new website to get ranked. In SERP you should see if there are Domains that have AR Rank in Millions, Lower DR, and fewer Backlinks.
Once you have found, such a keyword, in addition to using “inurl:” and “allintitle:” search strings to find a title that will work as icing on the cake and help you to land on the first page of Google Search Result.
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