Dark side of Social Media Influencing
Do you follow influencers on social media? Do you always check their posts? Do you find you’re spending too much time or becoming obsessed with checking influencers’ accounts? And when you can’t check in, do you feel disconnected or lost?
If you answered yes to all of these questions, you may have whats known as “problematic engagement” with social media influencers.
But don’t blame yourself too much. You are among the many who have been swept away by dazzling social media influencing. And this can be attributed to many features and tactics social media influencers employ that help keep them influential — like livestreams and polls on Instagram.
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As experts in social media and user behaviour, we recently published a paper that looks at followers’ problematic engagement with influencers on social media. Our paper is among the first to study which aspects of social media influencing may lead to followers’ problematic engagement. It is important to examine this context considering the significant volume and revenues of social media influencing — it’s a US$13.8 billion industry.
The issue of problematic engagement
Whether you are a fashion fan or want information on health and fitness — there’s an influencer to follow. And followers often gravitate towards them for their authenticity and content creation.
But less focus is put on the dark side of social media influencing. Influencers are motivated and often incentivized (through product and brand endorsement) to increase their power on social media and many are becoming more proficient in attracting and engaging followers.
Followers, on the other hand, can easily become attached and obsessed with influencers and their engagement can often become excessive and unhealthy. Problematic engagement with social media influencers is common among followers, but not well known or understood.
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We recently examined the factors and mechanisms that lead to problematic engagement. We focused on three influencer characteristics (physical attractiveness, social attractiveness and self-presence) and two follower participation attributes (participation comprehensiveness and following length) to explore their effects on the development of problematic engagement through the formation of follower attachments.
Based on attachment theory, we studied two types of attachments — parasocial relationship and sense of belonging, both of which are key in social media influencing. Parasocial relationship is followers’ perception of their one-sided relationship with an influencer and sense of belonging refers to the feeling of being an integral member of the influencer’s community.
We conducted an online survey of 500 Instagram users. The results showed that when followers develop attachments both to influencers (parasocial relationship) and their community (sense of belonging), this can lead to problematic engagement.
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We found that influencers’ social attractiveness has a stronger effect than other factors in building followers’ attachments. Following more influencers could reduce the impact of attachment to the community (sense of belonging) when it comes to problematic engagement, but not the effect of attachment to the influencer (parasocial relationship).
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Implications for influencers and followers
Our study warns of and explains problematic engagement to social media users.
We argue that social media users who are attracted to influencers can become easily attached and engage excessively. Users need to be aware of, watch out for and exert self-regulations to manage their interactions with influencers.
For example, participation comprehensiveness — which refers to the reasons for following and extent of followers’ participation (like watching, liking, commenting, sharing) — can lead to attachment development. This, however, can be consciously managed by followers themselves. One way of doing this is by making use of the phone’s functions and tools like setting daily time limits on Instagram or turning off notifications for the app.
Social media influencers should also be aware of followers’ problematic engagement. Although it may be in contrast with their goal of increasing follower engagement, they can focus on creating a healthy relationship with their followers.
For instance, influencers can openly talk about the issue of problematic engagement and show care for their followers’ well-being. This will help with sustainability of the relationship because studies have shown that social media users with problematic behaviour are more likely to stop using platforms after a while.
More research on the dark side of social media influencers is needed and we call for future research to focus on additional negative consequences such as followers’ anxiety, depression and the impact of following influencers on followers’ well-being.
Samira Farivar, Assistant Professor, Information Systems, Sprott School of Business, Carleton University; Fang Wang, Professor, Lazaridis School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, and Ofir Turel, Professor, School of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne
The Rise of the TikTok Tabloid
West Elm Caleb and The Rise of the TikTok Tabloid
If you don’t spend much time online, you may not recognize these names.
But on TikTok, their stories became sensationalized, memeified, hashtagged and rehashed.
The most recent is “#WestElmCaleb.” Women took to TikTok to share their experiences of being peppered with affection, strung along and ultimately ghosted by a New York City-based designer named Caleb, who became the exemplar for the worst aspects of online dating culture.
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Together, these stories represent the emergence of what I call the “TikTok Tabloid,” in which users collectively manufacture and dramatize stories like an investigative gossip reel. Traditional tabloids place the lurid limelight on celebrities and public figures. But the TikTok tabloid targets everyday people.
How did we get to the age of the TikTok tabloid? As someone who studies digital consumer culture, I see it as an outgrowth of the dynamics of social surveillance: using digital technologies to keep a close watch on one another, while producing online content in anticipation of being watched.
Shocking! Exclusive! Scoop!
Tabloid journalism isn’t new. Common tabloid genres of stars, sex, scandals and slayings have been cultural guilty pleasures since the early 1900s.
In the U.S., early tabloid newspapers like The Daily Mirror and New York Daily News ushered in an era of sensationalist reporting. These papers were particularly popular among working class readers who reveled in the speculative shenanigans of high society.
In the 1970s, glossy tabloid magazines like People and Us Weekly picked up the helm with behind-the-scenes celebrity exclusives and human-interest stories. Tabloid journalism migrated to the small screen in the 1990s with television shows like “Hard Copy” and “Inside Edition.”
And in the 2000s, the internet churned out round-the-clock celebrity gossip with clickbait headlines on websites like TMZ.com and PerezHilton.com.
Previous eras of tabloid journalism were marked by highly curated content with a focus on lifestyles of the rich and famous. The brokers of attention were editors, publishers, paparazzi, journalists and publicists. Tabloids filtered information to the masses, and in turn the masses influenced celebrity behaviors.
But now we are witnessing a new iteration of tabloidization playing out in real time on TikTok, where digital technologies enable everyday consumers to play the roles of armchair experts, investigative reporters, digital paparazzi, talking heads and celebrities themselves.
Watching and being watched
Traditional tabloid journalism is predicated on surveillance dynamics of “the many watching the few”: an obsession with a relative handful of selected stars and scandals. The emergent TikTok tabloid relies on dynamics of social surveillance, or “the many watching the many” – a network of everyday people watching and being watched.
According to media scholar Alice E. Marwick, social surveillance is defined as “the ongoing eavesdropping, investigation, gossip, and inquiry that constitutes information gathering by people about their peers, made salient by the social digitization normalized by social media.”
Classic views of surveillance envision a prison state – a Big Brother-esque panopticon where a guard in a tower can watch prisoners in cells but the prisoners in the cells cannot see into the tower.
In social surveillance, everyone online is both a guard and a prisoner, constantly consuming online content and producing content for others to see.
This always-on dynamic works to control behavior. Everyday people have the power to orchestrate what other users see, read and believe – not only about traditional celebrities, but also about regular everyday people.
In the case of Gabby Petito, who went missing in September 2021, TikTokers developed theories about her disappearance based on her final Instagram post and her Spotify playlists, claimed to psychically track her and scrambled to be the first to report #GabbyPetito breaking news.
Such deep-diving into people’s private lives for public entertainment is a function of social surveillance only further accelerated by the interactive features of TikTok.
‘Like for part two’
TikTok’s unique features and storytelling culture make it the perfect social media platform for making everyday people fodder for tabloid-like coverage.
First, interactive features of the platform allow TikTokers to collectively contribute to the TikTok tabloid in real time. TikTokers can directly respond to comments with new videos, curate and follow content via hashtags and sounds, stitch videos together with other content, caption them for context, and use a green screen effect – just like a real news studio.
Second, TikTok’s algorithm serves users content based on a combination of their interests and what seems to be generally trending. Watching a few videos about West Elm Caleb easily triggers a stream of West Elm Caleb content on the “for you page,” or #FYP: the TikTok version of front page news.
Third, storytelling practices on the TikTok platform mimic exclusive reports, hot takes and cliffhanger media. TikTokers dangle tantalizing bits of stories in front of viewers with caveats of “like for part 2” or by serializing their content. These stories then take on lives of their own, becoming culturally embedded memes.
Social media can be a useful mechanism for accountability. On Twitter, for example, users voiced outrage over racist actions of the Central Park Karen and found solidarity in sharing experiences of sexual harassment through the #MeToo Movement.
But where platforms like Twitter, Instagram and Facebook enable users to tell stories, TikTok enables users to create full-fledged narrative rabbit holes. A nugget of content can be collectively transformed into an epic drama.
The promise and peril of publicity
The TikTok tabloid democratizes access to fame while fueling America’s cultural penchant for gossip.
The TikTok tabloid may seem fun and frivolous – an entertaining live action, participatory role-play version of TMZ playing out in real time. But there can a dark side to this form of public shaming and internet sleuthing.
The constant churn of sensational news can take a toll on well-being, particularly for those most directly involved. In November 2021, Sabrina Prater became unwitting front-page news of the TikTok tabloid when her mundane dancing video spiraled into conspiracy theories of being a serial killer. She later posted a tearful video pleading for the emotional attacks to stop.
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Who manages the public images of people who didn’t choose to become public figures?
It would be easy to say they should just stay off TikTok. But it’s not that simple. Social surveillance ensures we all have the potential to become headline news – beholden to the TikTok tabloid taste-makers.
Esme Creed-Miles | Facts You Must Know
This article will cover everything you must know about “Esme Creed-Miles Height, Age, Net Worth” including about height, weight, where she was born and her net worth and much more.
It’s no secret that being a famous actress isn’t always as glamorous as it looks from the outside looking in. From early call times to running out of gas on the freeway, there are many reasons why actors have earned their fair share of bad reputations over the years.
However, once you’ve seen the light behind the camera and witnessed the love and dedication to the craft that comes with being an actor, it’s hard not to fall in love with them all over again. Take young actress Esme Creed-Miles, who absolutely shines on screen.
Who is Esme Creed-Miles?
She is an English Actress, born on 5 February 2000 in London England. She is best known for her lead role in Amazon Drama Series “Hannah”.
Creed-Miles is the daughter of Charlie Creed Miles, an English actor and musician and Samantha Morton an English actress and director.
After appearing in several television shows including Casualty and Shameless, she landed her first major movie role as young Shirley Temple in Harmony Korine’s a film Mr. Lonely.
Quick Facts about Esme Creed-Miles
- Full name: Esme Creed-Miles
- Date of birth: 5th February 2000
- Place of birth: Barnet, London, England, United Kingdom
- Zodiac sign: Aquarius
- Languages: English, French
- Nationality: British
- Height: 165 cm
- Weight in kg: 55 kg
- Father: Charlie Creed-Miles
- Mother: Samantha Morton (Actress/ Director; Samantha Jane Morton)
- Hanna Esme Creed-Miles’ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/esme_creedmiles/
- IMBD Page: https://www.imdb.com/name/nm2962727/
After being discovered by Harmony Korine at age of 9 she was cast as Little Girl in Mister Lonely (2007). She played as Phoebe Cates’ daughter in Fast Times at Ridgemont High remake, and Molly Parker’s daughter in Red Riding Hood. Esme also starred in Turistas (2006) and The Black Balloon (2008), where she shared screen with Academy Award nominee Toni Collette.
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Hannah Amazon Series
Amazon Prime show “Hanna ” is her recent film in which she is playing the role of Hanna.The Hanna Season 1 was aired in February 2019, then Hanna Season 2 July 2020 and Hanna Season 3 in November 2021. The series is created by David Farr and is based on Joe Wright’s 2011 feature film of same name and stars Mireille Enos, Joel Kinnaman, and Esme Creed-Miles.
Esme Creed-Miles trained in martial arts six hours a day for months as preparation for her fight scenes in the series. Hanna is a co-production between Amazon Studios and BBC Two. The story takes place in Sweden, as it did in Wright’s film, but several changes were made for its transition from cinema to television. She trained in martial arts six hours a day for months as preparation for her fight scenes in the series.
Esme Creed Miles Age
According to the Wikipedia and various other sources Esme Creed Miles age is as of today is 22 years old. She was born on 5 of February and Pisces zodiac. Other Pisces celebrities includes; Camila Cabello, Justin Bieber, Rihanna, Millie Bobby Brown and Emily Blunt.
Esme Creed-Miles Height
Esme Creed-Miles height is 165cm which is equivalent to 5 feet and 41 inches. Other celebrities of 165cm heights includes; Jennifer Aniston, Selena Gomez, Emma Watson, Jennifer Lopez, Daniel Radcliffe.
Esme Creed-Miles Net Worth
She started as child actress, she has played roles in numerous films and TV series since she was 7 years old. As of 2019, “Esme Creed-Miles estimated net worth is $1.5 millions”. But after her role as little Shirley Temple in Mr. Lonely (2007), Esme became popular around world. Nowadays, she plays Sarah Hill in BBC’s The Moonstone, and Elly Patterson in The Last Post.
Esme Creed-Miles Instagram
Esme Creed-Miles Official Instagram Page. She has around 102 posts, and 115000 Followers. You will see she post random posts from her life and sometimes work. On 15 February Posted a short video clip singing and playing guitar which her fans loved a lot.
Ri Sol-Ju North Korean First Lady 2022
Stunning pictures of Kim Jong-Un’s wife, Ri Sol-Ju, have sparked an internet meme making her one of the most talked-about women in North Korea. Here’s what everything you need to know about Ri Sol-Ju and her rise to fame as the First Lady of North Korea.
Ri Sol-Ju, First Lady of North Korea
In addition to being a fashion trailblazer in North Korea, Ri Sol-Ju is also seen as a symbol of virtue and purity by many. As is typical for first ladies in many countries, she does not have much of an official government role. Her public appearances are almost always focused on her husband’s on-the-spot guidance events or inspection tours. However, women in North Korea have praised her influence because of her passion for improving their lifestyles, particularly when it comes to clothing and style. High heels have become all the rage among women since Ri became the first lady and that probably says something about how much power she wields behind closed doors. She has even been spotted wearing Christian Louboutin stilettos herself!
How old is Ri Sol-Ju?
Ri Sol-Ju is a 33-year-old former singer and star of North Korea’s Unhasu Orchestra. Ri’s life as a leader’s wife has been spent largely out of view, and her age, children, and even date of birth have only recently come to light. The new first lady was reportedly born in 1989 and attended secondary school with Kim Jong-un at the International School of Berne in Switzerland before leaving for Pyongyang University of Music and Dance to study singing in 1999. She worked as a singer for several years before marrying Kim Jong-un in 2009.
When was Ri Sol-Ju married to Kim Jong Un?
It is reported that Ri Sol-Ju married Kim in 2009 when she was 20 years old. It is also rumored that they dated while they were teenagers; however, there are no public photos of them together. In July 2012, Ms. Ri was introduced to the public as Kim’s Jon wife.
Is she a mother?
Ri Sol-Ju, 33, is a mother of three. She gave birth to her first child in 2009 and two more children followed in 2012 and 2013. She’s often photographed with her children at public events wearing heels. She reportedly wears heels because of ankle surgery she had in her early 20s after having a horseback riding accident. Ri was made famous for being Kim Jong-un’s wife before he was even announced as leader of North Korea in December 2011.
Who are the Parents of Ri Sol-Ju?
Ri Sol-Ju’s earlier life is a “pseudonym“. We know very little, in fact, nothing about her earlier life. It is reported that she belonged to a political elite.
Does she have any siblings?
South Korean intelligence officials claim Ri has no brother or sister and that it is unlikely that someone with such a background would be chosen for such an important position by Kim Jong Un. Another possibility is that her parents moved from South Korea to North Korea during the 1950–1953 Korean War.
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What is the Net worth of Ri Sol-Ju?
It is estimated that Ri Sol-Ju’s net worth start at $1 million, although some think it could be much higher. It is hard to know exactly what Kim Jong-Un’s wife Ri Sol-Ju does for a living. She may have attended a university in Europe and worked for one of her husband’s company’s before marrying him in 2009. In July 2012, she was publicly acknowledged as being Kim Jong Un’s wife for the first time by official state media, indicating that she had become one of North Korea’s most influential women.
What else do we know about her?
There’s a lot we don’t know about Ri Sol-Ju, the first lady of North Korea. She has been described as stylish and charismatic. And when she isn’t fulfilling her duties as the first lady, she works as a top aide for her husband, Kim Jong-un. So what does it mean to be married to such an enigmatic and powerful man? Most recently, new reports suggest that she could become North Korea’s No 2.
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