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What is a bomb cyclone? An atmospheric scientist explains




Esther Mullens, University of Florida :A bomb cyclone is a large, intense midlatitude storm that has low pressure at its center, weather fronts and an array of associated weather, from blizzards to severe thunderstorms to heavy precipitation. It becomes a bomb when its central pressure decreases very quickly – by at least 24 millibars in 24 hours. Two famed meteorologists, Fred Sanders and John Gyakum, gave this pattern its name in a 1980 study.

When a cyclone “bombs,” or undergoes bombogenesis, this tells us that it has access to the optimal ingredients for strengthening, such as high amounts of heat, moisture and rising air. Most cyclones don’t intensify rapidly in this way. Bomb cyclones put forecasters on high alert, because they can produce significant harmful impacts.

The U.S. Eastern Seaboard is one of the regions where bombogenesis is most common. That’s because storms in the midlatitudes – a temperate zone north of the tropics that includes the entire continental U.S. – draw their energy from large temperature contrasts. Along the U.S. East Coast during winter, there’s a naturally potent thermal contrast between the cool land and the warm Gulf Stream current.

Over the warmer ocean, heat and moisture are abundant. But as cool continental air moves overhead and creates a large difference in temperature, the lower atmosphere becomes unstable and buoyant. Air rises, cools and condenses, forming clouds and precipitation.

UK meteorologist Alex Deakin explains how unstable air causes cumulus clouds to form.

Intense cyclones also require favorable conditions above the surface. Particularly strong upper-level winds, also known as “jet streaks,” and high-amplitude waves embedded within storm tracks can help force air to rise.

When a strong jet streak overlies a developing low-pressure system, it creates a feedback pattern that makes warm air rise at an increasing rate. This allows the pressure to drop rapidly at the center of the system. As the pressure drops, winds strengthen around the storm. Essentially, the atmosphere is trying to even out pressure differences between the center of the system and the area around it.

Weather forecasters are predicting that the northeastern U.S. will be affected by a potent winter storm on Jan. 28-30, 2022. Forecast models are calling for a swath of snow from coastal North Carolina northward to Maine.

Curious Kids: why can’t we put a space station on the Moon?


While precise locations and amounts of snowfall are still uncertain, parts of coastal New England appear most at risk of receiving 8-12 inches or more of heavy accumulating snow. Coupled with winds forecast to be over 50 miles per hour along the coast, the storm is likely to produce blizzard conditions, storm surge, coastal flooding, wind damage and beach erosion.

Bomb cyclones are sometimes called ‘winter hurricanes,’ but they are a different type of storm.

This storm’s life is expected to begin offshore of the southeast U.S. as a weak low-pressure system. Just 24 hours later, global models predict that its central pressure will drop by 35-50 millibars.

If this storm develops as forecasts predict, aided by winds blowing at over 150 miles per hour in the upper atmosphere, very warm sea surface temperatures just offshore (2-4 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than average), and a highly unstable atmosphere, it will have the critical ingredients for a bomb cyclone.

[Understand new developments in science, health and technology, each week. Subscribe to The Conversation’s science newsletter.]The Conversation

Esther Mullens, Assistant Professor of Geography, University of Florida

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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The Mermaids in Haiti | Mystery Revealed




Mermaids are the mythical, folklore, and legendary creatures of the ocean. People from Haiti islands believe the “Mermaids in Haiti” are true and take them to be the mysterious and beautiful phenomenon living in the oceans for centuries.

What Mermaids Represent?

In Haiti island, the queen of mermaids is worshipped and named “Lasiren.” She is taken the most beautiful, magically attractive, and famous who is living in her palace in the ocean. She rises in the ocean and surfaces at regular intervals which many people believe to have seen. Lasiren is worshipped as the mermaid queen and spirit, who comes to heal, spread love, guide people, and help them to find their purpose in life.

Also Read: Amarnath Pigeon Story

Finding Mermaids

Adventurers around the world, seeking the mermaids, travel to these islands to witness them with their own eyes. They think of them as a special natural habitat and enchant to find them and tell people about them. the normal aura that these mermaids have been depicted with some half women and half fish, but the local folklore depicts mermaids in several different forms.

One of the strongest depictions that Haiti locals suggest is of women with long hair, with different shades and the most prominent shade that hovers is green and chants different but beautiful voices. They are taken to be compassionate, generous, or spiteful and vindictive. So basically when finding mermaids be spontaneous and very much vigilant in learning about these characters.

These mermaids in Haiti islands live in the ocean, are associated to be part of the ocean habitat, and swim like a fast but silent powerful fish. The locals in Haiti islands have reported seeing these creatures on the banks of oceans and in some cases near rivers.

Mermaids Symbolized

In Haiti islands, mermaids are symbolized to be a sign of feminism, delightful attraction, and motherhood. For women, they help to gain feminine power, intuition, fertility, and motherhood. Although academically the mermaids are sea-dwelling mythical creatures and have existed for thousands of years, but are associated to be a woman who is fish below the waist and symbolizes to be fertility in the ocean.

In “Pirates of the Caribbean, on Stranger Tides” the mermaids were shown luring the sailors and embodied to have a destructive and mythical creature depiction. Most of the time they are served to be the omen for the storms to come in the unruly and harsh sea tides that brings disaster and death. Although in the final scene of the mermaid, she has taken the sailor into the deep ocean to give them the true meaning of life and freedom.

But there are also local myths that these mermaids often help lost people on sea tides to reach back home or true path of life. If you are lost at some point in life these mermaids have the power to heal and put you back on the right track of life. Today, in the modern world, these mermaids are not just considered mythical and legend but also living creature that exists all around the world.

Shall we think that these beautiful and feminine creatures exist today? The answer could be MAYBE OR MAYBE NOT. No one actually knows if these mermaids exist, or, where did they come from, or their origin of life, but yes they are living, praying, and worshipping an enigma that still exists around the world, especially in Haiti islands.

Factsheet for Mermaid in Haiti Islands

We are stating some of the facts that mermaids in Haiti islands are being reported, headlined, and discovered but obviously their stories and ideas exist among the people for centuries.

  • The Haitian mermaid is the “Queen of Ocean,” worshipped and named Lasiren.
  • In different magic and Voodoo, the mermaid is a guiding spirit to assist in love, healing, and fertility.
  • The mermaid in Haiti island is the goddess that brings fortune and luck in magic and Voodoo, .
  • In mythical understanding, these mermaids help the sailors, boatmen, fishermen, and wonderers to seek that path in the right direction.
  • In some mythical folklore, these creatures are taken to be the women who sing near the shore of the sea to lure men away. Men who get attracted are to be taken and drowned in the sea.
  • Most commonly mermaid in Haiti island is a queen, a half-woman, and half fish but they can take other forms such as sea serpents or dragons, who can sink the ships and destroy them.
  • In some folklores, these mermaids “Lasiren” are shapeshifters and presumably change into complete women if stay on shores for longer times. But with the touch of the seawater, their body, below waist half body can again be shifted to fish.
  • Christopher Columbus, in his diary, has claimed to see and talk with these mythical creatures.
  • In other parts of the world, for example in Greece, they are called “Sirens”. In the Scotland, they are called “Marrows” and appeared differently. And in Africa, it is called “Mami Wata with a Snake.”
  • The mirror is considered to be a symbol of power for the mermaid on Haiti island. Common gifts such as mirrors, combs, jewelry, wine, flowers, perfumes, and doves are often presented to these mythical creature images and pictures as a worshipping tantrum.
  • The mermaid in Haiti island “Lasiren” in some folklores can take over the spirit of the women to talk, communicate, and let know happenings in the deep sea.


The Mermaid in Haiti island is a myth and magical character that has been worshipped over several centuries. People worship her for fertility, feminism, love, and for several other reasons. In many tales, folklores, and stories these mermaids have also altered the life of the affected individuals. But in different cultures of the world, these mermaids are luring creatures that either give the right track of life or have destroyed sailors, boatmen, or fishermen’s life. With its mythical significance and low hard and substantial facts, it will stay as a magical character and will be filmed as an astonishing and mythical being.

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Large aquatic animals are being hunted and traded




Africa’s large aquatic animals are being hunted and traded: we assessed the scale

Daniel J Ingram, University of Stirling

Across most of the world, and particularly in the tropics and subtropics, large wild aquatic animals – such as manatees, turtles and dolphins – are being hunted and traded. This is not a new phenomenon. Aquatic animal meat has been eaten, and sometimes used as remedies or in traditional ceremonies, throughout history.

This type of consumption is widespread. In some places this wild meat is an important source of nutrition, income, and cultural identity. Yet opportunities to exploit wildlife for economic gain – often illegally – increase the number of animals hunted in some places. Coupled with growing human populations, this has led to the unsustainable exploitation of some species.

Understanding the scope and potential threat of aquatic wild meat exploitation is an important first step toward appropriate conservation actions and policies.

We’re part of a large international team of conservation researchers and practitioners that recently published a paper on this. We carried out a literature review on the use of large aquatic animals (excluding fish) – what we call “aquatic megafauna” – for wild meat in the global tropics and subtropics. This topic is hugely under-researched, so this review represents one of the most in-depth assessments of the topic to date.

We focused on 37 species of conservation concern that are listed on the Appendices of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The list includes several species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises (cetaceans), manatees and dugongs (sirenians), marine turtles (chelonians), and crocodiles (crocodylians).

Twelve of these species inhabit oceans and rivers in West, Central and Eastern Africa. These are regions that were in the tropics and subtropics and are where there are concerns about hunting, consumption and trade.

We found that the consumption of these aquatic animals is widespread in coastal regions, to varying degrees. Some species are likely to be at risk from over-exploitation, particularly species inhabiting rivers and freshwater areas.

For most of the species monitored, a major issue is that animals are unintentionally caught as bycatch during fishing. They’re then opportunistically killed and eaten or sold, instead of being released when alive.

Also Read: What is a bomb cyclone? An atmospheric scientist explains

Dolphins, manatees and turtles (large aquatic animals)

We found evidence of the use of cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) in most countries in tropical Africa, particularly in West Africa. Their meat was used for a variety of purposes including food, shark bait, and traditional medicine.

One species considered to be particularly at risk is the Atlantic humpback dolphin (Sousa teuszii). Distributed solely along Africa’s Atlantic coast, it’s one of the least understood coastal dolphins in the world. Because it has such a small population size and lives close to shores – where it can get captured by small-scale fishers – it’s highly vulnerable.

African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis), distributed exclusively in West and Central Africa, and dugong (Dugong dugon), whose range spans into East Africa, are legally protected in nearly all countries in which they occur. However, the team found evidence that they were being used for various purposes including food and traditional medicine to some degree in all countries. Most manatee populations cannot withstand human-induced mortality because their populations are highly sensitive to changes in adult survival. In recent years, high losses to populations of African manatees have been reported.

Turtles face a similar threat. The capture and consumption of marine turtle adults, and harvest of their eggs, is ubiquitous across much of the species’ ranges. This includes mainland Africa and the African islands. However, as with the other aquatic megafauna, larger-scale monitoring is needed to assess impacts and sustainability.

Also Read: The 8 Most Deadly Female Fighters Around the World

River animals

Risks to riverine megafauna – those living in rivers – from harvest may be particularly high, even if opportunistic, because these species face multiple threats in the same restricted area. The threats include dams, intensive fishing, and pollution where human population density is high. In Africa, this is true of African manatees and freshwater turtles (which were not assessed in the study, but are widely hunted).

Riverine megafauna may suffer from a lack of management and research, and will require increased conservation efforts. This is because they’re neither seen as terrestrial species nor as fish, so it’s not often clear at the national level who is responsible for their conservation and management.


Across the tropics and subtropics, there are clearly differences in local circumstances between areas. The drivers of hunting and consumption, hunting technologies used, human density and other threats to animals and their habitats, and how they change over time, will influence harvest sustainability.

Nonetheless, it’s clear that the use of aquatic megafauna for meat is likely to be far more widespread in terms of frequency and species than reported in the review. This is because monitoring and reporting is limited. Also because many of the species are protected by national laws, or are charismatic, so their use is secretive.

The trans-boundary nature of harvests and associated trade of these oceanic, coastal, and riverine species requires increased international attention and cooperation.The Conversation

Daniel J Ingram, Researcher in Conservation, University of Stirling

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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